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Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences


Synthetic far-red light-mediated CRISPR-dCas9 device for inducing functional ...
The ability to control the activity of CRISPR-dCas9 with precise spatiotemporal resolution will enable tight genome regulation of user-defined endogenous genes for studying the dynamics of transcriptional regulation. Optogenetic devices with minimal phototoxicity and the capacity for deep tissue penetration are extremely useful for precise spatiotemporal control of cellular behavior...
17 Jul 2018 at 4:06pm

Rsd balances (p)ppGpp level by stimulating the hydrolase activity of SpoT dur...
Bacteria respond to nutritional stresses by changing the cellular concentration of the alarmone (p)ppGpp. This control mechanism, called the stringent response, depends on two enzymes, the (p)ppGpp synthetase RelA and the bifunctional (p)ppGpp synthetase/hydrolase SpoT in Escherichia coli and related bacteria. Because SpoT is the only enzyme responsible for (p)ppGpp...
17 Jul 2018 at 4:06pm

Genetic dissection of neuropeptide cell biology at high and low activity in a...
Neuropeptides are ubiquitous modulators of behavior and physiology. They are packaged in specialized secretory organelles called dense core vesicles (DCVs) that are released upon neural stimulation. Unlike synaptic vesicles, which can be recycled and refilled close to release sites, DCVs must be replenished by de novo synthesis in the cell...
17 Jul 2018 at 4:06pm

Ethological observations of social behavior in the operating room [Anthropology]
Operating rooms (ORs) are inhabited by hierarchical, mixed-gender clinical teams that are often prone to conflict. In evolutionary terms, one expects more within- than between-gender rivalries, especially since the OR is a place where all sorts of social interactions occur, not merely technical communications. To document the full range of...
17 Jul 2018 at 4:06pm

Opposite outcomes of coinfection at individual and population scales [Ecology]
Coinfecting parasites and pathogens remain a leading challenge for global public health due to their consequences for individual-level infection risk and disease progression. However, a clear understanding of the population-level consequences of coinfection is lacking. Here, we constructed a model that includes three individual-level effects of coinfection: mortality, fecundity, and...
17 Jul 2018 at 4:06pm

Quorum sensing and iron regulate a two-for-one siderophore gene cluster in Vi...
The secretion of small Fe-binding molecules called siderophores is an important microbial strategy for survival in Fe-limited environments. Siderophore production is often regulated by quorum sensing (QS), a microbial counting technique that allows organisms to alter gene expression based on cell density. However, the identity and quantities of siderophores produced...
17 Jul 2018 at 4:06pm

Costs and benefits of provocation in bacterial warfare [Microbiology]
Competition in animals involves a wide variety of aggressive behaviors. One of the most sophisticated strategies for a focal actor is to provoke a competitor into uncontrolled aggression toward other competitors. Like animals, bacteria rely on a broad spectrum of molecular weapons, some of which provoke potential rivals by triggering...
17 Jul 2018 at 4:06pm

Adaptation aftereffects reveal representations for encoding of contingent soc...
A hallmark of human social behavior is the effortless ability to relate one?s own actions to that of the interaction partner, e.g., when stretching out one?s arms to catch a tripping child. What are the behavioral properties of the neural substrates that support this indispensable human skill? Here we examined...
17 Jul 2018 at 4:06pm

Role for fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) in the leptin-mediated effects on ...
Endocannabinoid signaling regulates feeding and metabolic processes and has been linked to obesity development. Several hormonal signals, such as glucocorticoids and ghrelin, regulate feeding and metabolism by engaging the endocannabinoid system. Similarly, studies have suggested that leptin interacts with the endocannabinoid system, yet the mechanism and functional relevance of this...
17 Jul 2018 at 4:06pm

Repression of human and mouse brain inflammaging transcriptome by broad gene-...
Brain ?inflammaging,? a low-grade and chronic inflammation, is a major hallmark for aging-related neurodegenerative diseases. Here, by profiling H3K27ac and gene expression patterns in human and mouse brains, we found that age-related up-regulated (Age-Up) and down-regulated (Age-Down) genes have distinct H3K27ac patterns. Although both groups show promoter H3K27ac, the Age-Up...
17 Jul 2018 at 4:06pm

Relational mobility predicts social behaviors in 39 countries and is tied to ...
Biologists and social scientists have long tried to understand why some societies have more fluid and open interpersonal relationships and how those differences influence culture. This study measures relational mobility, a socioecological variable quantifying voluntary (high relational mobility) vs. fixed (low relational mobility) interpersonal relationships. We measure relational mobility in...
17 Jul 2018 at 4:06pm

PIP30/FAM192A is a novel regulator of the nuclear proteasome activator PA28{g...
PA28? is a nuclear activator of the 20S proteasome involved in the regulation of several essential cellular processes, such as cell proliferation, apoptosis, nuclear dynamics, and cellular stress response. Unlike the 19S regulator of the proteasome, which specifically recognizes ubiquitylated proteins, PA28? promotes the degradation of several substrates by the...
10 Jul 2018 at 4:36pm

In vivo imaging of the pathophysiological changes and neutrophil dynamics in ...
The pathophysiological changes that occur in lungs infected with influenza viruses are poorly understood. Here we established an in vivo imaging system that combines two-photon excitation microscopy and fluorescent influenza viruses of different pathogenicity. This approach allowed us to monitor and correlate several parameters and physiological changes including the spread...
10 Jul 2018 at 4:36pm

Piano training enhances the neural processing of pitch and improves speech pe...
Musical training confers advantages in speech-sound processing, which could play an important role in early childhood education. To understand the mechanisms of this effect, we used event-related potential and behavioral measures in a longitudinal design. Seventy-four Mandarin-speaking children aged 4?5 y old were pseudorandomly assigned to piano training, reading training,...
10 Jul 2018 at 4:36pm

Amyloid clearance defect in ApoE4 astrocytes is reversed by epigenetic correc...
Endosomes have emerged as a central hub and pathogenic driver of Alzheimer?s disease (AD). The earliest brain cytopathology in neurodegeneration, occurring decades before amyloid plaques and cognitive decline, is an expansion in the size and number of endosomal compartments. The strongest genetic risk factor for sporadic AD is the ?4...
10 Jul 2018 at 4:36pm


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