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Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences


Gain control explains the effect of distraction in human perceptual, cognitiv...
When making decisions, humans are often distracted by irrelevant information. Distraction has a different impact on perceptual, cognitive, and value-guided choices, giving rise to well-described behavioral phenomena such as the tilt illusion, conflict adaptation, or economic decoy effects. However, a single, unified model that can account for all these phenomena...
18 Sep 2018 at 4:52pm

Altered ER-mitochondria contact impacts mitochondria calcium homeostasis and ...
Calcium (Ca2+) homeostasis is essential for neuronal function and survival. Altered Ca2+ homeostasis has been consistently observed in neurological diseases. How Ca2+ homeostasis is achieved in various cellular compartments of disease-relevant cell types is not well understood. Here we show in Drosophila Parkinson?s disease (PD) models that Ca2+ transport from...
18 Sep 2018 at 4:52pm

Chemokine receptors CCR2 and CX3CR1 regulate viral encephalitis-induced hippo...
Viral encephalitis is a major risk factor for the development of seizures, epilepsy, and hippocampal damage with associated cognitive impairment, markedly reducing quality of life in survivors. The mechanisms underlying seizures and hippocampal neurodegeneration developing during and after viral encephalitis are only incompletely understood, hampering the development of preventive treatments....
18 Sep 2018 at 4:52pm

Lack of Sprouty 1 and 2 enhances survival of effector CD8+ T cells and yields...
Identifying novel pathways that promote robust function and longevity of cytotoxic T cells has promising potential for immunotherapeutic strategies to combat cancer and chronic infections. We show that sprouty 1 and 2 (Spry1/2) molecules regulate the survival and function of memory CD8+ T cells. Spry1/2 double-knockout (DKO) ovalbumin (OVA)-specific CD8+...
18 Sep 2018 at 4:52pm

Molecular machines with bio-inspired mechanisms [Physical Sciences]
The widespread use of molecular-level motion in key natural processes suggests that great rewards could come from bridging the gap between the present generation of synthetic molecular machines?which by and large function as switches?and the machines of the macroscopic world, which utilize the synchronized behavior of integrated components to perform...
18 Sep 2018 at 4:52pm

Morphological transitions of elastic filaments in shear flow [Applied Physica...
The morphological dynamics, instabilities, and transitions of elastic filaments in viscous flows underlie a wealth of biophysical processes from flagellar propulsion to intracellular streaming and are also key to deciphering the rheological behavior of many complex fluids and soft materials. Here, we combine experiments and computational modeling to elucidate the...
18 Sep 2018 at 4:52pm

Ultrahigh-throughput functional profiling of microbiota communities [Biochemi...
Microbiome spectra serve as critical clues to elucidate the evolutionary biology pathways, potential pathologies, and even behavioral patterns of the host organisms. Furthermore, exotic sources of microbiota represent an unexplored niche to discover microbial secondary metabolites. However, establishing the bacterial functionality is complicated by an intricate web of interactions inside...
18 Sep 2018 at 4:52pm

Mechanics of diseased red blood cells in human spleen and consequences for he...
In red blood cell (RBC) diseases, the spleen contributes to anemia by clearing the damaged RBCs, but its unique ability to mechanically challenge RBCs also poses the risk of inducing other pathogenic effects. We have analyzed RBCs in hereditary spherocytosis (HS) and hereditary elliptocytosis (HE), two typical examples of blood...
18 Sep 2018 at 4:52pm

Genetic screen identifies adaptive aneuploidy as a key mediator of ER stress ...
The yeast genome becomes unstable during stress, which often results in adaptive aneuploidy, allowing rapid activation of protective mechanisms that restore cellular homeostasis. In this study, we performed a genetic screen in Saccharomyces cerevisiae to identify genome adaptations that confer resistance to tunicamycin-induced endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress. Whole-genome sequencing of...
18 Sep 2018 at 4:52pm

Perspective taking can promote short-term inclusionary behavior toward Syrian...
Social scientists have shown how easily individuals are moved to exclude outgroup members. Can we foster inclusion instead? This study leverages one of the most significant humanitarian crises of our time to test whether, and under what conditions, American citizens adopt more inclusionary behavior toward Syrian refugees. We conduct a...
18 Sep 2018 at 4:52pm

In This Issue [This Week in PNAS]
Countries? adaptation to population aging Aging and adaptation. Image courtesy of iStock/monkeybusinessimages. Around the world, the proportion of elderly adults in the population is increasing, and failure to adapt to this demographic transformation poses financial and social risks. Cynthia Chen et al. (pp. 9169?9174) developed the Aging Society Index to...
11 Sep 2018 at 4:01pm

Precursor proadrenomedullin influences cardiomyocyte survival and local infla...
Increased adrenomedullin (ADM) levels are associated with various cardiac diseases such as myocardial infarction (MI). ADM is cleaved off from the full-length precursor protein proadrenomedullin (ProADM) during its posttranslational processing. To date, no biological effect of ProADM is reported, while ADM infusion leads to antiapoptotic effects and improved cardiac function....
11 Sep 2018 at 4:01pm

Palmitoylation enables MAPK-dependent proteostasis of axon survival factors [...
Axon degeneration is a prominent event in many neurodegenerative disorders. Axon injury stimulates an intrinsic self-destruction program that culminates in activation of the prodegeneration factor SARM1 and local dismantling of damaged axon segments. In healthy axons, SARM1 activity is restrained by constant delivery of the axon survival factor NMNAT2. Elevating...
11 Sep 2018 at 4:01pm

Early postnatal behavioral, cellular, and molecular changes in models of Hunt...
Huntington disease (HD) is an autosomal dominant neurodegenerative disorder caused by expanded CAG repeats in the huntingtin gene (HTT). Although mutant HTT is expressed during embryonic development and throughout life, clinical HD usually manifests later in adulthood. A number of studies document neurodevelopmental changes associated with mutant HTT, but whether...
11 Sep 2018 at 4:01pm

Absorption by water increases fluorescence image contrast of biological tissu...
Recent technology developments have expanded the wavelength window for biological fluorescence imaging into the shortwave infrared. We show here a mechanistic understanding of how drastic changes in fluorescence imaging contrast can arise from slight changes of imaging wavelength in the shortwave infrared. We demonstrate, in 3D tissue phantoms and in...
11 Sep 2018 at 4:01pm


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